Removal of Nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater by two efficient technologies (Microalgae and trickling filter)
Water pollution is one of the main impediments to public health in developing countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and African regions etc. (Haider R. et al. 2017). Availability of excess nutrients is known to cause eutrophication of water bodies such as lakes and rivers, which leads to low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions and eventually makes the water body unsuitable for recreational purposes. Nitrogen and Phosphates in receiving waters originates from natural and anthropogenic sources, including agricultural runoff, atmospheric deposition, intensive farming, wetlands, and effluent from wastewater treatment plants.
Therefore, the wastewater must receive suitable treatment before being discharged into water bodies. Microalgae and trickling filter plays an effective role during wastewater treatment. In this research work we selected two techniques like, mix culture of microalgae (Dunaliella salina, Schroederia setigera and Chlorella vulgaris), and trickling filter for compared to test their ability to remove nitrogen-nitrate (NO3 -N) and orthophosphate (PO34-P) in batch cultures of wastewater treatment. The microalgae with the best cell growth configuration were selected, and introduced as a suitable method for nutrient removal. Results indicate that microalgae showed a higher, total N and PO34 – P uptake rate 85 % and 81% respectively, while trickling filter showed a higher removal rate of BOD, NO3–N, as 91%, 86% respectively. So in this case we can say that both techniques are more efficient for wastewater treatment.
Redescription of Trematode parasite Azygia angusticauda (Stafford 1904, Bhalerao 1942) in Fresh water fish Clarias batrachus from Maharashtra, India
The present communication deals with the redescription of Trematode parasite Azygia angusticauda. Reddish brown in colour, Body elongate, without spines, dorsoventrally flat and transparent. Measure 5.999(5.888- 6.111) in length and 0.910(0.777-1.044) in width. Mouth is surrounded by the oral sucker which is slightly sub terminal in position while ventral sucker is distinctly smaller than the oral sucker and oval in shape. Oesophagus is very short. Measuring 0.105(0.0999-0.111) in length and 0.044(0.033 -0.055) in width. Intestinal Caeca long, tubular, runs along sides of body and terminates slightly in front of hind end of body. Testes are large oval, anterior testis smaller than posterior testis. Cirrus pouch lay in front of ventral sucker. Ovary transverse, oval in shape, Receptaculum seminis present just in front of ovary, oval in shape. Vitellaria follicular extracaecal.
Physical and sensory qualities of tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) flour based enriched cookies
The cookies were standardised by replacing a part of wheat flour with Tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) flour and using soyabean oil and sorbitol as fat and sugar substitutes. The standardised cookies were further enriched with wheat bran (2 to 4 %) and garden cress seed and flax seed (2, 4 and 6 %) in 1:1 proportion. The sensory evaluation and physicochemical quality of cookies revealed that 20 % substitution of tannia tuber flour has overall high acceptance similar to control (100 % refined wheat flour) cookies (p>0.01). Enrichment of 2 % wheat bran and 6 % of both garden cress seeds and flax seeds (1:1) were most acceptable (p>0.01). The physical qualities were observed during forty days of storage period initially and at ten days interval. Lower diameter and spread factor, higher thickness was observed in enriched tannia flour based cookies and remained same during storage. Weight of control cookies was higher than enriched tannia cookies and gradually showed increase trend during storage. There was not much variation noticed in weight, diameter and thickness of cookies and were well compared with control. The hardness of cookies are showed decreasing trend during the storage period.