Climate change is a one of the major challenge that is already affecting people and the environment worldwide. Average global temperatures of earth have been rising day by day over the last century. The problem is not just changing temperatures; it is a changing climate—or a change in the weather patterns that people and ecosystems have become accustomed to over time. Emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from human activities, primarily burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil are the major culprits for climate change. Therefore, Climate change is the most serious is¬sue on earth which needs to be focused for a better and sustainable development. In this context biotechnology could contribute to the adaptation and mitigation of climate change impacts. Green house gas emission can be reduced through the use of modern biotechnology which ultimately leads to increase food security. The present paper discuss about the conventional and modern biotechnological approaches to address climate change adaptation and mitigation for improved crop productivity and food security.
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