India is amongst the leading countries as far as food wastage is concerned. Food grains worth Rs. 58,000 Crore are wasted per annum due to the lack of (or inferior quality) the storage facilities. The poor condition of the food grain is due to the inferior condition of godowns. The storability of the food grain is affected by different factors like, moisture content of the grain, oxygen, carbon dioxide content of the storage environment. As the moisture content affects food grains storability severely, the storage structures must be provided with sufficient protection from moisture migration to the grain from the environment. The insect and pests grow at a faster rate in the presence of oxygen and moisture in the storage environment. To avoid infestation, the storage environment can be manipulated or a chemical treatment can be given to the grain. Among the new gaseous application technologies that have successfully replaced fumigants are the manipulation of modified atmospheres (MAs) through the use of bio generated MAs, for insect control and for quality preservation of grains, stored paddy, polished rice, wheat, pulses, cocoa or coffee beans, high moisture corn, etc. The MAs can be achieved either by the natural respiration of the grain and the insects or by artificially flushing of gases. Sufficiently sealed structures generate the MA by reducing the O2 and increasing the CO2 concentrations. The sealed structures keep moisture levels of the grain constant which prevents mould growth. This technology is also termed as sealed storage, airtight storage, or assisted hermetic storage, bio-generated modified atmosphere (MA), etc. Hermetical Storage is based on the principle of generation of an oxygen-depleted, carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere caused by the respiration of the living organisms in the ecological system of a sealed storage.
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